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Имя файлаИ. П. Крылова, Е. М. Гордон -- Грамматика современного английско
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иностранных языков


Крылова И. П., Гордон Е. М.


Рекомендуется использовать в комплекте со «Сборником упражнений

УДК 802.0(075.8)
ББК 81.2 Англ-2

ISBN 5-8013-0168-2


(Высшая школа) П. Крылова, Е. М. Гордон,
для студентов институтов иностранных языков, а также факультетов
  • отклонения от норм, если они необходимы студентам для правильного
  • менно оставались бы хорошими образцами английского языка и чтобы

  • матических явлений, в частности особая оговорка делается в отноше-

    В учебнике отражены следующие признаки частей речи: 1) их се-

    Хотя словообразование и сочетаемость с другими частями речи так-
    обычно входит в курс лексикологии, и включение его в грамматику

    Другим чрезвычайно важным в практическом отношении разделом

    отнесения действия к будущему. Введены дополнительные объяснения
    без излишней терминологической перегруженности, трактуются формы
    альности. Изменения внесены также в описание неличных форм глагола:
    многие грамматисты указывают, что они фактически не разграничи-

    По-новому освещается в учебнике также употребление артиклей.

    Раздел «Краткие сведения о структуре предложения» не претендует



    parts of speech. its

    (to work, to live);
    (table, boy); (good, bad),
    grammatical categories,
    person and number; nouns have the categories of number and case;


    notional structural.
    Notional words
    Structural words in, and, even). the a, that, of,
    trees the garden, Tom Joe, book, book,
    look He looked at me He looked tired; to have have a car had to do it).

    ity (e.g. to walk, to speak, to play, to study), to sleep,
    to wait, to live), to be, to like, to know), to
    consist, to resemble, to lack)
    speech, e.g. they have the categories of tense, aspect, voice, etc.

    e.g. to open, to close, to bring, to recognize, to refuse, to break.
    to open,
    to carry, to live, to speak, to know, to sit,
    to play.
    see meaning 'to know saw him at once I saw his face quite clearly.

    e.g. a) We were eating dinner when he called.

    The following is the list of most commonly used stative verbs:
    to hear, to notice, to see;
  • to adore, to care for, to detest, to
    dislike, to hate, to like, to love, to respect;
  • to desire, to want, to wish;
  • to admire to appreciate, to assume, to believe con
    sider to doubt, to expect to feel to imagine, to know, to mind to perceive, to
    presume, to recall, to recognize, to recollect, to regard, to remember,
    to suppose, to think to trust, to understand;
  • apply, to be, to belong, to concern, to con-
    sist, to contain, to depend, to deserve, to differ, to equal, to fit, to
    have, to hold to include, to involve, to lack, to mat-
    ter, to need, to owe, to own, to possess, to remain, to require, to re-
    semble, to result, to signify, to suffice;
  • to agree, to allow, to appear to astonish, to claim, to consent, to displease, to envy, to fail to
    do, to feel l, to find, to forbid, to forgive, to intend, to inter-
    est, to keep doing, to manage to do, to mean, to object, to please,
    to prefer, to prevent, to puzzle, to realize, to refuse, to remind, to
    satisfy, to seem, to smell to sound to succeed, to
    suit, to surprise, to taste to tend, to value.The surface feels rough. The song sounds nice. The soup tastes (smells) nice.

    e.g. We walked across the fields.

    Nobody knew where the old man lived.

      His mother never gave him advice.
    1. Now let's talk of something sensible.

      She ran the shop quite competently.

      e.g. During the war he lived in London.

      verb cannot have an independent syntactic function in the sen-

      gether they form a modal predicate.

      was a middle-aged man.
      very hot
      empty deserted.

      Polysemantic verbs may be notional as well as structural words.

      e.g. He is married and has three children (a notional verb used in

      structural word: a modal
      verb denoting obligation, part of a modal predicate).

      structural word: an auxiliary verb which serves to build
      up an analytical form).
      notional verb
      meaning 'glanced').
      looked (a structural word: a link-verb meaning

      tion they perform in the sentence: the finite forms and the non-fi-

      The finite forms have the function of the predicate in the sen-
      tence and may also be called the predicative forms.

      1. tive without the particle to,

        -ed. played, answered, opened, closed), [t]
        looked, passed), wanted, wasted, ended, landed).
        In writing the following spelling rules should be observed:
        -y -y
        -led study — studied, envy — envied). -y play — played,
        stay — stayed).
      2. -er (-ur) stop stopped, admit — admitted, occur — occurred, prefer — pre-
        ferred). limit — limited, perform — per-
        formed, conquer — conquered, appear — appeared).
      3. -l trav-
        el — travelled, quarrel — quarrelled).
        sing — sang — sung, write — wrote — written, send sent — sent, teach — taught — taught, learn — learnt
        learnt learn — learned — learned). cut — cut — cut, hit — hit — hit).
        suppletive systems. They are the verbs to be to go.

        I work, he works, we worked), I find, I found), I think, I thought).
        He hard. shows that has worked nation of both components.
        was written The letter was written
        yesterday), written was we are dealing with the third person singular, the Indicative Mood,
        the Past Indefinite, But again the specific grammatical meaning of
        this particular form, that of the Passive Voice, is expressed by the

        he works, he has worked, he worked,
        he was working, he had worked,
        working. He working. The letter written,


        nite) forms have a very broad meaning, they have no specialized

        closely merged together that it is impossible to treat them sepa-

        He knows English. He knew English. He will know English.

        If I want I'll would be waiting I had kept
        structurally dependent use
        see to, to take care to make sure
        lexically-dependent use
        absolute relative use
        simultaneity, priority posteriority
        discovered knew did.
        knew had read He thought would hate
        present-time contexts past-time contexts.
        In present-time contexts, viewed from the moment of speaking. (The moment of speaking is

        past-time contexts,
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